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笠翁对韵注释 下卷·十一 尤

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    下卷·十一 尤
 

  荣对辱,喜对忧。缱绻对绸缪。吴娃对越女,野马对沙鸥。茶解渴,酒消愁。白眼对苍头。马迁修《史记》,孔子作《春秋》。莘野耕夫闲举耜,渭滨渔父晚垂钩。龙马游河,羲帝因图而画卦;神龟出洛,禹王取法以明畴。
 
  [注]缱绻句:缱绻(qi?n qu?n遣犬)和绸缪(chóu móu仇谋),都是形容感情亲密、情意缠绵的样子。吴娃:吴地的姑娘。娃,少女。野马:《庄子o逍遥游》中说:"野马也,尘埃也,生物之以息相吹也。"野马说的是早春大地上蒸腾的水蒸气。(唐)韩偓诗:"窗里日光飞野马。"白眼:(晋)阮籍视人,能作青、白眼,见庸俗之士则以白眼对之。苍头:在秦末农民大起义中,有一支义军的士卒以青巾裹头,称苍头军。后世苍头多指老年仆人。马迁:即司马迁。莘野句:此句疑用伊尹故事。《吕氏春秋》说:有侁(shēn申)氏女子得婴儿于空桑之中,名伊尹,长而贤,商汤王准备聘请他,有侁氏不肯,汤于是聘有侁氏女,以伊尹为陪嫁奴隶取了去,后以为相,国大治。有侁氏即有莘氏。又解为《孟子·万章上》:"伊尹耕于有莘之野,而乐尧舜之道焉。"莘,㈠(shēn申),众多;㈡(xīn心):地名,莘庄,在上海市。渭滨渔父:指商代末年的姜尚。见萧韵第一章"千载"二句注。龙马二句:见鱼韵第二章"洛龟"二句注。神龟二句:上古传说,夏禹曾参照洛水神龟献出的宝书,制定了"洪范九畴"。
 
  其二
 
  冠对履,舄对裘。院小对庭幽。面墙对膝地,错智对良筹。孤嶂耸,大江流。芳泽对圆丘。花潭来越唱,柳屿起吴讴。莺懒燕忙三月雨,蛩摧蝉退一天秋。钟子听琴,荒径入林山寂寂;谪仙捉月,洪涛接岸水悠悠。
 
  [注]舄(xì细):○1鞋。○2同澙,咸水浸渍的土地。面墙:《论语》记述孔子的话说:"人而不为《周南》、《如南》,其犹正墙面而立也与?"后来"面墙"就成了思路闭塞的代用语。错智句:错指西汉政治家晁错,他在文帝时曾为太子家令,太子家令是主管太子府内庶务的官员,相当于太子府的总管,很有谋略,多智,大家称他为"智囊"。良指张良。良筹是说张良的高明策略。又解为汉初张良借箸筹画政事。芳泽:泽本是妇女用的脂粉,或说内衣,后芳泽即转为女性的代称。圆丘:是古代天子祭祀天神的地方,也写作圜丘。吴讴(ōu欧):吴地的民歌。钟子句:上古故事,余伯牙善于弹琴,钟子期善解琴,闻伯牙鼓《高山流水曲》,遂相知好。子期死,伯牙碎琴不复鼓,谓无知音也。谪仙句:古代民间传说,诗人李白特别喜爱明月,在采石矶,一次酒醉,看到江心倒映的月影,就前去扑捉,结果溺水而死。谪(zhé折),○1谴责,责罚;○2封建时代特指贬官。
 
  其三
 
  鱼对鸟,鹡对鸠。翠馆对红楼。七贤对三友,爱日对悲秋。虎类狗,蚁如牛。列辟对诸侯。陈唱临春乐,隋歌清夜游。空中事业麒麟阁,地下文章鹦鹉洲。旷野平原,猎士马蹄轻似箭;斜风细雨,牧童牛背稳如舟。
 
  [注]鹡:鹡鸰(jílíng急灵),一种小鸟。七贤句:(晋)嵇(jī机)康与阮籍、山涛、向秀、阮咸、王戎、刘伶友好,常宴集于竹林之下,号为竹林七贤。三友:以三种事物为友,如松、竹、梅;琴、酒、诗;梅、石、竹等。爱日:○1指暖和的阳光;○2珍惜时间。骆宾王《赠宋之问》诗:"温辉凌爱日,壮气惊寒水。"虎类狗:东汉马援在《戒兄子严敦书》(写给侄子严敦的信)中,告诫他们说,学龙伯高,不成犹为谨慎之士,所谓刻鹄不成尚类鹜;学习豪侠好义的杜季良,不成为天下轻薄子,所谓画虎不成反类狗。蚁如牛:(晋)殷浩患耳疾,听见床下蚂蚁动,以为是牛斗之声。列辟(bì壁):辟,君王;列辟等于说诸王侯。陈唱句:南朝陈后主荒淫,修结绮、临春、望仙阁,与张丽华、江总、孔贵嫔诸人日夜游戏、歌唱,其中以《玉树后庭花》、《临春乐》为最有名。隋歌句:传说隋炀帝夏夜宴游,放萤火虫照明,歌清夜之曲;冬日剪彩为花。空中句:汉宣帝时,为了表彰功臣,将霍光、苏武等画在麒麟阁上,共十一人。"空中事业",是说功名富贵本来是虚幻的,这是作者的消极思想。地下句:三国时才士祢衡,因反对曹操,被排挤到荆州,后被刘表部下黄祖(忌其才)杀害。他曾写过《白鹦鹉赋》,因此他被害之处人们就称之为鹦鹉洲。"地下文章"是说该人已死去。

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